CNC Machining Processes
Milling is a process that uses machines with rotating multipoint cutting tools to remove excess material from a workpiece. In CNC milling, the CNC machine is operated so that the workpiece cuts the tool in the same direction of rotation as the cutting tool.
Turning is a machining process involving single-point cutting tools to remove material from the rotating workpiece. CNC turning uses a CNC lathe to instruct the cutting tool to cut in a linear motion along the surface of the rotating workpiece. This process also removes the excess material around the surface until the desired diameter is achieved.
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CNC Machining Materials
These are low-carbon metal alloys that shows good mechanical properties, machinability and weldability at a reasonable price. It can also be carburized to increase the hardness. Common grades are: Q235, Q345, 1020, 1045, etc.
Other alloying elements together with carbon forms Alloy steels. They are associated in improving hardness, toughness, fatigue and wear resistance. Common grades are: 40Cr, 4140 (42CrMo), 4340, etc.
Stainless steel alloys offers high strength, ductility, wear and corrosion resistance. You can easily weld, polish, or machine them.
Common grades are: 304, 304, 316, 17-4ph, 2205, etc.
Aluminum alloys show good strength-to-weight ratio, possessing high thermal and electrical conductivity, natural corrosion resistance, low density and it can easily be anodized.
Common aluminum alloys for cnc machining are: 6061, 6063, 6082, 7075, etc.
Brass & copper are basically metal alloys that offers good machinability and excellent electrical and thermal conductivity. They can ideally be used in places where low friction material is required. It’s often used for bus bars, wire connectors, and other electrical applications. Examples of alloys are: C36000, C10100, C11000, etc.
Surface Finish Options
ASTM A356 is the aluminum casting alloy for gravity die casting process. Such aluminium casting alloy is with good liquidity, no hot tearing susceptibility, small shrinkage rate. Gravity die casting of A356 alloy can achieve better size accuracy and surface finish than sand casting process, that will save machining cost.
T6 heat treatment could be done to improve the properties, especially the strength of the parts. Mainly used for marine parts, truck parts, impeller, housings, exhaust manifold, etc.
A360 is harder to cast than A380, which is why many die casters avoid it. However, it does offer higher strength at high temperatures, better ductility, and higher corrosion resistance, so you may want to consider this alloy depending on your casting abilities and needs.
ASTM A360 is the aluminum casting alloy mainly suitable for high pressure or low pressure die casting process. This aluminum alloy is often used to produce automobile oil pans, automobile controller shells, 5G communication boxes, motor shells, LED lamp housing and so on.
ASTM A380 is by far the most widely used alloy for pressure die casting process. This type aluminum casting alloy is with good thermal conductivity, pressure bearing, high temperature resistance and easy to be machined. Unlike A356 alloy, it could not be heat treated after casting. It may be specialized for most product applications. Some of the uses of this alloy include electronic and communications equipment, automotive components, engine brackets, transmission and gear cases, appliances, lawn mower housings, furniture components, hand and power tools.
ADC12, also known as ASTM A383, is a common aluminum alloy used in die casting process. In China, due to its ease of casting and excellent mechanical properties, ADC12 aluminium is more often used as an alternative of A380 aluminium to creat highly intricate parts .
This material is commonly used in a large number of aluminum die castings such as furniture, valves, machinery, power tools, engine brackets, etc.
Applications of CNC Machining
CNC machining was first used in Aerospace. It is used in this industry because it offers lightweight parts with exceptional physical properties and high tolerances. CNC machining can be used for aircraft parts as well as during the development stages.
Gallery of CNC machined parts
Overview: What is CNC Machining?
CNC Machining Basics
CNC (Computure Numerical Control) machining is CNC machine tool processing, is equipped with digital control system of automated machine tools. It is a combination of machinery, automation, computers, and other high-tech new technology. Its basic components are digital control program carrier, machine tool device, drive spindle device, machine tool body, and safety guards.
CNC machining is controlled according to the programmed programming, usually G-code, to make the machine tool machining. The G-code digital language can control the machining process of CNC machine tools. It makes the tool control system use different position coordinates, control the tool feed and spindle speed, coolant and other functions.
The correctness of the toolpath can be analyzed using the CNC machine’s idle run. When the digital program is entered into the machine, the fixture tool and workpiece are installed. When the idle button is pressed, the spindle does not rotate and the table automatically runs along the programmed path. At this step, it is found out if there is any contact between the tool and the workpiece or the fixture. The above operation control is controlled by the cam, die and dividing device in the form of analog quantities. The machining accuracy of the parts is affected by the accuracy of the cams and dies, and it can process complex parts with certain flexibility and versatility and long process preparation time. CNC machining solves the problem of complex and precise, small batch and multi-species machining, and it is widely used in modern industry, which greatly improves the production efficiency of companies.